The hybrid car are cars of the future,and technology is pushing the hybrid cars to the top cars been used.
The push for hybrids
The increase in hybrid vehicles has occurred for several reasons, but the interest in this technology is mostly due to federal regulation for improved gas mileage and additional environmental awareness among consumers. The auto industry in 2019 was awaiting final word whether the federal fuel economy standard of 54.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for automaker fleets by the year 2025 would instead be frozen at the 2020 standard of 37 mpg.* Along with being more fuel efficient, hybrid, electric and other alternative-fuel vehicles can help reduce emissions.
Hybrid vehicles that operate on a combination of gas and electricity debuted in the United States in 1999 with the subcompact Honda Insight. The Insight won numerous innovation awards and it achieved EPA averages of 61 mpg in city driving and 70 mpg on the highway.
The original Insight, which went out of production in 2006, was eventually overshadowed by the introduction of the 2000 Toyota Prius, a hybrid sedan. The Prius had already been successful in Japan for four years, and its momentum continued in the U.S. and prompted the current trend. Since the success of the Prius, every major and niche manufacturer has incorporated hybrid and alternative fuel vehicles into their lineups.
The hybrid compromise
Despite all the benefits, there are a couple trade-offs to hybrid technology. For car buyers seeking superior cargo space, hybrid engines typically require large battery packs that restrict trunk space. And although electric vehicle range has improved, many plug-in electric vehicles require frequent charging, resulting in some driver hesitancy to embrace hybrid technology because of "range anxiety.
Hybrid vehicles are powered by an internal combustion engine and an electric motor, which uses energy stored in batteries. A hybrid electric vehicle cannot be plugged in to charge the battery. Instead, the battery is charged through regenerative braking and by the internal combustion engine. The extra power provided by the electric motor can potentially allow for a smaller engine. The battery can also power auxiliary loads and reduce engine idling when stopped. Together, these features result in better fuel economy without sacrificing performance
Components of hybrid vehicles
Battery (auxiliary): In an electric drive vehicle, the auxiliary battery provides electricity to start the car before the traction battery is engaged and also powers vehicle accessories.
DC/DC converter: This device converts higher-voltage DC power from the traction battery pack to the lower-voltage DC power needed to run vehicle accessories and recharge the auxiliary battery.
Electric generator: Generates electricity from the rotating wheels while braking, transferring that energy back to the traction battery pack. Some vehicles use motor generators that perform both the drive and regeneration functions.
Electric traction motor: Using power from the traction battery pack, this motor drives the vehicle's wheels. Some vehicles use motor generators that perform both the drive and regeneration functions.
Exhaust system: The exhaust system channels the exhaust gases from the engine out through the tailpipe. A three-way catalyst is designed to reduce engine-out emissions within the exhaust system.
Fuel filler: A nozzle from a fuel dispenser attaches to the receptacle on the vehicle to fill the tank.
Fuel tank (gasoline): This tank stores gasoline on board the vehicle until it's needed by the engine.
Internal combustion engine (spark-ignited): In this configuration, fuel is injected into either the intake manifold or the combustion chamber, where it is combined with air, and the air/fuel mixture is ignited by the spark from a spark plug.
Power electronics controller: This unit manages the flow of electrical energy delivered by the traction battery, controlling the speed of the electric traction motor and the torque it produces.
Thermal system (cooling): This system maintains a proper operating temperature range of the engine, electric motor, power electronics, and other components.
Traction battery pack: Stores electricity for use by the electric traction motor.
Transmission: The transmission transfers mechanical power from the engine and/or electric traction motor to drive the wheels.
Learn the basics of hybrid vehicle technology as well as the difference between a parallel, series, and plug-in hybrid.
What is a hybrid?
Quite simply, a hybrid combines at least one electric motor with a gasoline engine to move the car, and its system recaptures energy via regenerative braking. Sometimes the electric motor does all the work, sometimes it's the gas engine, and sometimes they work together. The result is less gasoline burned and, therefore, better fuel economy. Adding electric power can even boost performance in certain instances.
With all of them, electricity comes from a high-voltage battery pack (separate from the car's conventional 12-volt battery) that's replenished by capturing energy from deceleration that's typically lost to heat generated by the brakes in conventional cars. (This happens through the regenerative braking system.) Hybrids also use the gas engine to charge and maintain the battery. Car companies use different hybrid designs to accomplish different missions, ranging from maximum fuel savings to keeping the vehicle's cost as low as possible.
THE HYBRID MARKET
Type of Hybrid Vehicles
In this most common design, the electric motor(s) and gasoline engine are connected in a common transmission that blends the two power sources. That transmission can be an automatic, a manual, or a continuously variable transmission (CVT). One very popular hybrid transmission is a power-split CVT, which is used by the Toyota Prius and Chevrolet Volt. Transmission type and the size of the gasoline engine are the main factors that determine how a parallel hybrid will accelerate, sound, and feel. Brands that use the parallel design include Toyota, Lexus, Hyundai, Kia, Ford, Honda, Lincoln, Nissan, and Infiniti.
In this design, the electric motor(s) provides all the thrust, and there is never a physical mechanical connection between the engine and the wheels. The gasoline engine is just there to recharge the battery. This results in a driving experience that's more indicative of an electric car, with smoother, powerful acceleration. There's typically less vibration when the gasoline engine engages. However, that engagement doesn't always happen in concert with what your right foot is doing (remember, the battery is making the demands), so the engine might be revving up while the car is cruising at a steady speed. Some find this behavior disconcerting. The BMW i3 with the range extender is an example of a series hybrid.
A plug-in hybrid enhances the conventional hybrid concept with a much larger battery pack that, like an electric car's, must be fully recharged using an external electricity source—from your home, office, or public charging station. This greater amount of energy storage is like a larger gas tank: It allows for extended all-electric driving (between 15 and 55 miles depending on the model) and can significantly reduce fuel consumption. In fact, if you have a short commute and recharge nightly, you'll be running on electricity most of the time. Should you deplete the all-electric range, the car basically reverts to being a conventional parallel hybrid. The Chrysler Pacifica plug in hybrid (shown above) is an example of the plug-in breed.
Plug-in hybrids can be either a series or a parallel hybrid. No one said this wasn't complicated.
Variations on the Hybrid Theme
Twenty years of advancement is making it even more complicated to answer "what is a hybrid?" Honda's new hybrid design, for instance, doesn't fall neatly into the series or parallel bucket. In this design, the engine turns a generator most of the time, like a series hybrid, but at other times, the engine can also directly drive the wheels, like a parallel hybrid. Then there are the so-called through-the-road hybrids, like the plug-in hybrids from Volvo that use a fairly conventional front-wheel-drive engine and transmission paired with an electrically powered rear axle. The Acura NSX, BMW i8, and Porsche 918 Spyder supercars are similar, except their electric-only axles are at the front.
All of the above are considered "full hybrids," which means that the electric motor is capable of moving the car by itself, even if it's for a short distance. In a "mild" hybrid, it cannot. Just as in a full hybrid, a mild hybrid's electric motor is there to assist the gasoline engine for the purposes of improving fuel economy, increasing performance, or both. It also serves as the starter for the automatic start-stop system, which shuts down the engine when the car comes to rest in order to save fuel.
Originally envisioned as a simpler and cheaper means of bringing hybrid technology to market, mild hybrids don't improve fuel economy to the extent that full hybrid systems can. As such, they never enjoyed the same popularity. Recently, however, mild hybrid powertrains are making a comeback, as evidenced by the adoption of 48-volt electrical subsystems in vehicles such as the Ram 1500, Mercedes Benz E-class, and Audi A6, A7, and A8 Basically, car companies are now applying mild-hybrid technology to just about every new model. In the not-too-distant future, the answer to "what is a hybrid?" may well be "everything."
Content created and supplied by: Genedal (via Opera News )