It is not longer news that the deadly covid19 is a global pandemic. Even the deaf can still hear a squeeze of the words inside their ears. This disease has posed the greatest challenge on the human race since the past seven decades.
Due to the volatility in it mortality and spread, researchers are working tirelessly around the clock to create a vaccine,that could ultimately put an end to the virus.
While there have been huge improvement in the effort towards creating a working vaccine, it is essential to say that steps involved before a drug could be deemed certified a vaccine, it needed to successfully pass three stages.
I. After the vaccine has been created they check out for the vaccine safety on human health.
II. They determine the dosage to be prescribe.
III. Identify side effects
IV. Test the drugs on small number of people.
In this case a selected no of people could be vaccinated.
I. They further explore the safety of the drugs on a larger no of people in a relatively wider geographic location.
Thousands of people are tested at this stage.
PHASE 3. Stage three is the most advanced staged and at the point the vaccine is trialed on a larger scale and across a wider geographical location,in this case,more than one country could be vaccinated simultaneously to check for lasting effect.
Few countries and institutions around the globe are at an advanced stage in creating a cure for the disease.
The quicker they get the vaccine,the better for the human race.
Below are list of countries/institutions that are at an advanced stage of creating a vaccine.
ANHUI ZHIFEI LONGCOM BIOPHARMACEUTICAL & INSTITUTE OF MICROBIOLOGY, CHINESE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (CHINA) - PROTEIN SUBUNIT VACCINE
The protein subunit vaccine candidate is being tested in collaboration with the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University and Beijing Chao Yang Hospital. This phase 1 clinical trial will see 50 healthy adults between the ages of 18 and 59 being tested.
CHINESE ACADEMY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES (CHINA) - INACTIVATED PLATFORM VACCINE
The Institute of Medical Biology at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (IMBCAMS) has previously developed inactivated vaccines for polio and hand-foot-and-mouth disease.
CLOVER BIOPHARMACEUTICALS INC., GSK & DYNAVAX *(AUSTRALIA) – PROTEIN-BASED VACCINE
The protein-based COVID-19 S-Trimer vaccine which use GSK’s adjuvant system is now being tested in human clinical trials. This move comes after the promising results during the preclinical stage. The study will be conducted in 150 healthy adults in Australia. Clover has also obtained US$ 3.5 million from CEPI to prepare and launch phase 1 of clinical trials.
CUREVAC (GERMANY) - MRNA VACCINE
Based on an RNA platform, CureVac’s vaccine candidate has received € 300 million backing from the German government, € 80 million from the European Commission and € 8.3 million from the CEPI. The two-dose vaccine will be tested in 168 healthy individuals between the age of 18 and 60. Earlier this year, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation also made a commitment to invest US$ 52 million in CureVac to support its platform technology and the construction of a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) production facility.
GAMALEYA RESEARCH INSTITUTE (RUSSIA) - VIRAL VECTOR VACCINE
This non-replicating viral vector vaccine candidate has started a phase 1 clinical trial with two sets of volunteers receiving vaccination since mid-June.
MODERNA (USA) - MRNA VACCINE
This RNA vaccine has been developed by Moderna, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), which is part of the US National Institutes of Health. The vaccine was tested in phase 1 trials on volunteers at the Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute in Seattle. Now, Moderna has started phase 2 trials on participants of a wide range of ages. The company expects phase 3 trials to start in July.
CANSINO BIOLOGICS INC. (CHINA) - VIRAL VECTOR VACCINE
The Ad5-nCoV vaccine candidate uses a harmless non-replicating viral vector (essentially a sort of molecular transport) to carry vaccine antigens into the human body – this is the same platform that the vaccine developer CanSgics Inc, based in Tianjin, used for its Ebola vaccine. In their phase 1 trial, 108 participants aged between 18 and 60 years were enrolled and allocated to one of three dose groups. The vaccine was jointly developed with the Institute of Biotechnology of the Academy of Military Medical Sciences. The clinical trial is taking place in Wuhan.
UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD (UK) - VIRAL VECTOR VACCINE
The ChAdOx1 vaccine, developed by the University of Oxford, is testing the vaccine in phase 3 clinical trials in more than 10,000 people from across the UK, including children and the elderly. The vaccine is also being tested in Brazil and has just started in South Africa, the first COVID-19 vaccine trial in Africa. With support from the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), AstraZeneca will manufacture 300 million doses of this coronavirus vaccine candidate in anticipation of the vaccine proving to be both safe and effective. If it is, the first doses are expected to be available in late 2020.
The Nigeria perspective.
It has been rumored that some research center in Nigeria has been working to create a vaccine that could possible end the pandemic
It has been reported that there 19 companies in Nigeria that are currently doing one thing or the other in creating a vaccine the local way, that is, through local herbal contortion.
Finally,it is a surety that anyone who championed the research that is deemed capable for curing the deadly disease could be a strong candidate for a Nobel prize in medicine or physiology.
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