The region of Africa is one of the most continent with varied culture. More than one trillion people talk more than two thousand languages across the world. Several reports have shown that there are nearly 3,000 languages around the continent of Africa.
The country most diverse on the continent(Africa) is Nigeria with over 500 languages being spoken in the country, one of the highest concentrations of cultural diversity in the world. The continent has a long multiple language tradition due to citizens with varying language origins communicate by intermarriages. Most citizens talk more than one language in Africa.
Most African nations have achieved freedom and have embraced one language that their citizens use as the primary and the formal language as one means of fostering nationalities.
Most nations have chosen their past colonial masters ' languages to be used in policy, industry and schooling. This is why the most common languages on the continent are English, French and Portuguese. But several African nations have begun to encourage their local languages and respect their linguistic plurality by establishing multilingualism policy.
Languages of Africa come mainly from one of the three language families: African Asian, Nilo-Saharan and Niger Congo, other languages being included in different major language groups including Khoisan, Indo-European and Austronesian languages.
In North Africa and the Horn of Africa, African languages are mainly spoken by over 350 million people. Berber languages, Semitic languages, Chadic and Cushitic are among those included in this language unit..
Nilo-Saharan is the largest group of languages which combines several different languages from the Nile valley all over to Tanzania, Congo, Nigeria and other languages along the Niger River.
Nilo-Saharan Kanuri, Fur, Songhay, Nobiin and the strong Nilotic, which includes the Luo, Dinka and Maasai, are among the most commonly spoken languages in this region. Because of its huge number of speakers, the Niger-Congo language family is the largest linguistic community in the region and by far worldwide. The Bantu linguistic group, which covers a vast area across the continent, is within this broader family.
HERE ARE THE 10 MOST SPOKEN LANGUAGES IN AFRICA
English is the continent's first-largest language with over 300 million speakers. In Africa, through colonizing Africa, Africa adopted the language which came from England in the United Kingdom.. Most former English colonies have adopted English for their governance, company and schooling as their official language. Many other nations have intentions to follow the English language, although they are not former colonies of Britain.
For example, Rwanda, a former colony of France, encourages its people rapidly learn English as the nation is absorbed into the eastern African culture. In 23 African countries the language is spoken, in which Botswana, Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mauritius, Nigeria, Saint Helena, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Rwanda, Norway, Norway, Swazile and Zimbabwe. The people language are English.
In the African Great Lakes region in central and southern Africa, Swahili, classified as kiswahili, is a Bantu language spoken by about 150 millions in Africans. It is the official language of the Republic of Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Mozambique and Burundi.
The vast number of citizens who use this language and its rich history give Swahili such an attraction to other language teachers.
As it was originally a trading language developed to promote exchanges between a number of Southern and Eastern Africa's people, Swahili has preserved its meaning from the periods of the early trade till the 21st Century— a feat not achievable by many languages.
Arabic, with more than 110 million native speakers and 30 million learning it as a second language, is one of the most common languages in Africa. In several countries of the African continent, Arabic is still an official language, for example Algeria, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Somalia and Tunisia.
Several Arabic Creoles, such as Juba Arabic, spoken in the Sudanese and Nubi regions of Uganda and Kenya are also in practice. Arabic is supposed to have went to Africa through ancient trading routes used by the spice and agricultural merchants as a currency.
In different countries on the African continent, French has more than 100 million speakers. Under the colonial period, French was applied to the continent. French in Asia, in France or elsewhere in Europe, varies from the French spoken in France.
The key explanation for this is the impact of other local languages spoken in Africa which results in a variety of French-and African-speaking Creoles. French, together with other European languages such as English, Portuguese and Spanish is the official language in a range of countries around the continent.
Seychelles and Mauritius have their own Creoles, derived from French (Seychellois Creole and Mauritian Creole). They have their own Creole. The Democratic Republic of Congo followed Madagascar, Cameroon and the Ivory coast are the top four countries of the world with the highest francophone population.
Hausa is African continent's fifth largest language. It is a part of the Chadic branch of the Afro Asian language family. Hausa is the first and second language in Nigeria as well as other Western African nations.
Hausa is the most commonly spoken first language. In Africa, the Hausa language has more than 80 million speakers. In North Nigeria and the South Republic of Niger, most speakers speak Hausa. It is common among others in Cameroon, Togo, Benin, Ghana and the Republic of Burkina Faso.
The language was spoken by a dialect in Kano, Nigeria, where most speakers of Hausa reside. It is popular in Nigeria and other parts of West Africa in industry and schooling. Moreover, because of its enormous literature, it is one of the relatively few African countries taught by foreign Universities.
In the countries of Nigeria, Benin, Ghana, Togo and the Ivory Coast Yoruba are a historically ethnic group. The Yoruba language has 50,000,000 speakers in some parts of the continent.
Yoruba is one of the most complex Nigeria languages. Many Yoruba dialects exist throughout Central Africa and many speakers are even practicing these dialects. As a tonal language, even speakers from different parts of the country were incoherent to each other.
To achieve uniformity in 1884, a generic edition was introduced. This is still followed to date, with a less common variant produced in 1970 for typewriters and computer printing. Yoruba's rich origins in literature have been transformed into plays and language books by famous Yoruba writers.
Oromo is Ethiopia's most common language, and it has been learned by more than 50 percent of the population. Oromo is Ethiopia's oldest language with over 40 million first speakers and about 8 million second speakers.
Oromo is a regional language of the indigenous Africans of the same name from the Cushitic language tribe. Throughout the north and the north east of Africa Oromo people have settled and in Kenya, Somalia and parts of Egypt speakers of the Oromo language are found.
Igbo is spoken by more than 45 million people and is one of the oldest languages in West Africa, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea. The language is classified as a Niger-Congo language since it was developed in the 9th century AC.
Igbo, like Yoruba, is a main language which was not introduced until the beginning of the 1970s to incorporate the sound changes in the write system. Igbo is one of Nigeria's three languages.
Zulu is another language with more than 18 million native languages and 12 million second languages. The majority of Zulu's speakers live in the South African province of KwaZulu, although in Lesotho and Eswatini there are even smaller minorities.
Zulu is frequently mistaken with the Xhosa language as an intruder since its almost similar vocabulary and phonetics is a common minority indigenous language in these areas.
Nevertheless, the mother-tongue speakers of these two languages do not accept this notion because they trust in its special characteristics.
Berber is the 10th language in Africa to be spoken most commonly. Berber is a group of 26 closely connected languages, which form a branch of the family of African-Asian language.
They are spoken by 14 to 25 million people in Northern Africa throughout the Mediterranean coast, the Sahara desert and Sahel, an area which used to be dominated by Berbers before the arrival of the Arabs.
In Morocco and in Algeria, Mali, niger and libya, and in Tunis, Mauritania, Burkina Faso and Egypt, there are now large groups of Berber speakers.
As can be shown from the large list of languages listed above, Africa is a mixture of several languages which have been merged into it, each with a specific language.
Across Africa the increasing surge of refugees, the changing political environment and the sudden law and order have struggled to affect the African languages. The continent is one of the world's biggest continent with several languages to speak of — which would certainly exist in the future, so I will huge everyone to start learning at least two Africa language so as to keep our language still going forward, Thanks.
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