You might have wondered why the king of Sokoto has the title “Sultan” unlike other Northern states that have the title “Emir.” There is just one Sultan. The Sultan of Sokoto is also referred to as “Sokoto Caliph,” the title signifies the kind of authority it has.
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The Sultan is a sovereign leader, an emperor who is not under anyone's authority. Anyone with such title has indirectly taken the mantle of the Prophet Mohammed to be the leader of all Muslims in a particular region.
Consequently, the Sultan of Sokoto is the leader of all Muslims in Nigeria. He gives directives on important Muslim dates and projects the religion in a good light.
The first Sultan of Sokoto is Usman Dan Fodio, who together with the Emirs of that time carried out local administrative work under the British Consulate. The present Sultan is Alhaji Sa'adu Abubakar, he became the Sultan in 2006 and has ruled ever since. Another Sultan who was prominent in Nigeria was Sir Ahmadu Bello, who fought alongside notable persons for Nigeria's independence.
In conclusion, Emirs control certain provinces that are under the Caliphate. It is the second most important position after the Sultan. We have Emir of Kano, Emir of Kastina, Emir of Nasarawa, Emir of Daura and so on.
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