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Heart Related Diseases In Sickle Cell

Over the last couple of years, approximately fifteen years, a number of cardiovascular complications have been identified and known to be a cause of death in sickle cell disease patients, one of which is the term heart attack or sudden cardiac arrest. 

Sickle cell disease patients are screened and undergo several tests which include a physical examination, electrocardiogram ECG, Holter monitoring, QRST surface mapping, chest x-rays, bicycle exercise echocardiography test, pulmonary artery catheterization, cardiac magnetic imaging (MRI), invasive electrocardiographic (reveal) monitoring, echocardiogram (heart ultrasound), and blood tests for the diagnosis of the heart-related diseases in sickle cell disease. 

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Photo Credit: Jagran Josh

Sickle cell disease is well associated with elevated cardiac output and cardiomegaly. The combination of mild to severe anemia and a resultant volume load produces increased cardiac output at rest. The rate at which sickle cell disease patients can increase cardiac output and coronary perfusion in response to stress is limited. 

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Photo Credit: Dairy Store

Sickle cell disease patients have increased secondary to compensatory hypertrophy, which occurs in response to ventricular dilation, and also in sickle cell disease patients, the severity of dilation is in concordance with an increasing degree of anemia. The hypertrophy in sickle cell disease patients is left ventricular hypertrophy. 

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Photo Credit: The Lancet

Sickle cell disease patients have demonstrated enlargement of the left heart chambers. Sickle cell disease patients tend to develop cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction. There is also a case of diastolic dysfunction, systolic dysfunction, and pulmonary hypertension in sickle cell disease patients. Using the Doppler echocardiographic method, it shows the early abnormalities in both systolic and diastolic function that occurs at an early age in sickle cell disease patients. 

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Photo Credit: Nature

Sickle cell disease patients who are ages three to eighteen are known to have myocardial performance index (MPI) values that were both higher in the left and right ventricles of the patients. Iron is a requirement for the activity of numerous iron- and haem- containing proteins in the blood, and sickle cell disease patients are seen with an iron overload and progressive heart damage. 

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Photo Credit: Future Medicine

Content created and supplied by: Dr-Kikiope (via Opera News )

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