Family planning is available methods used to help individual and couples to choose if and when they will have a child or/and choose the number of children that will have in a given time space. The choice of any contraceptive methods depends on social, cultural, religious and psychological influences.
Men and women have reliable methods to enable them to make that choice freely and relatively easily. The means available for both males and females will be highlighted separately for easy identification.
Its very important to know that, the under-listed contraceptive methods must be thoroughly investigated to know which one will be okay before embarking on any of them from medical experts.
## Contraceptive methods available for men:
1. Withdrawal Method (Coitus Interruption): this is done by removing the penis from vagina just before ejaculation. It relies on the ability of the man to recognize the sensation which occur in his genitals just before ejaculation and for him to rapidly withdraw his penis in the vagina and ejaculate outside.
2. Condom: if a man covers his penis with a sheath which is so thin that it is not noticed by either sexual partner, but so strong that neither the movement of the penis in the vagina, nor the ejaculation of the semen tears it, pregnancy is prevented as no sperm will be deposited near the cervix. Also, if penis is protected by condom, the genital germs of an infected woman will be unable to get into the delicate tissue of the penis.
3. Vasectomy: men are now increasingly interested in vasectomy as the operation provides an easy and painless method of making a Man's sterile without interfering with the couple's sexual enjoyment. The operation is relatively simple. The principle is to cut a small segment out of the body, meanwhile, the narrow tube which carries the sperms from the testicles. Vasectomy merely prevents sperms from being ejaculated. ## Contraceptive methods available for women:
4. Vaginal jellies and creams: there are creams and jellies that contain chemicals which kill sperms for sufficient time the jelly or cream is introduced into the vagina. Spermicidal jellies and creams are also used in conjunction with vaginal Diaphragms or when the man uses a condom which may increase their their protective value against an unwanted pregnancy.
5. Vaginal Diaphragms: this method consists of a thin rubber dome which has a coiled or flat metal spring in the rim. The diaphragms are made in various sizes, and the woman must be examined virginally and be given the size most suitable for her vagina. However, after child birth, the capacity of the vagina may increase to some extent and the woman should be refitted if she intends to continue to use the diaphragm as a contraceptive method.
6. Hormonal Contraceptives: this means the use of pills. Today's pill contains less oestrogens and so is much safer. The two hormones may be used singly, or together, given by mouth or by injection to suit the needs of different women. But this has a lot of side effect especially if not taken regularly as expected.
7. Intrauterine Device (IUD): the IUD is chosen by some women who wish to avoid pregnancy. It has advantage over the pill in that once it has been placed inside the uterus and has been accepted, the woman has not got to do anything else to protect herself. She will not be taking pills every day, she can have sexual intercourse with reasonable safety and without worry.
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