Reproduction is controlled by a system that includes the hypothalamus (an area of the brain), pituitary gland, ovaries, and other glands, such as the adrenal glands and thyroid gland. Problems with ovulation (release of an egg) result when one part of this system malfunctions. For example,
The hypothalamus may not secrete gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which stimulates the pituitary gland to produce the hormones that stimulate the ovaries and stimulate ovulation (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone).
The pituitary gland may produce too little luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone.
The ovaries may produce too little estrogen.
The pituitary gland may produce too much prolactin, a hormone that stimulates milk production. High levels of prolactin (hyperprolactinemia) may result in low levels of the hormones that stimulate ovulation. Prolactin levels may be high because of a pituitary gland tumor, which is almost always noncancerous.
Other glands may malfunction. For example, the adrenal glands may overproduce male hormones (such as testosterone), or the thyroid glands can overproduce or underproduce thyroid hormones, which help keep the pituitary gland and ovaries in balance.
An ovulation problem is often the cause of infertility in women who have irregular periods or no periods. Infrequently, an ovulation problem is the cause of infertility in women who have regular menstrual periods but do not have premenstrual symptoms, such as breast tenderness, lower abdominal swelling, and mood changes. Other causes of ovulation problems include
Certain drugs (such as estrogens and progestins and antidepressants)
Causes of Failure to Ovulate
(1) Hormonal Problems
These are the most common causes of anovulation. The process of ovulation depends upon a complex balance of
hormones and their interactions to be successful, and any disruption in this process can hinder ovulation. There are three
main sources causing this problem:
Failure to produce mature eggs
(2) Scarred Ovaries
Physical damage to the ovaries may result in failed ovulation. For example, extensive, invasive, or multiple surgeries, for
repeated ovarian cysts may cause the capsule of the ovary to become damaged or scarred, such that follicles cannot mature
properly and ovulation does not occur. Infection may also have this impact.
(3) Premature Menopause
This presents a rare and as of yet unexplainable cause of anovulation. Some women cease menstruation and begin
menopause before normal age. It is hypothesized that their natural supply of eggs has been depleted or that the majority
of cases occur in extremely athletic women with a long history of low body weight and extensive exercise. There is also
a genetic possibility for this condition.
(4) Follicle Problems
Although currently unexplained, "unruptured follicle syndrome" occurs in women who produce a normal follicle, with an egg
inside of it, every month yet the follicle fails to rupture. The egg, therefore, remains inside the ovary and proper ovulation
does not occur.
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Tips to Improve Egg Quality and Boost Fertility
1. Manage Stress.
Stress can produce hormones such as cortisol and prolactin that can interfere or halt ovulation, which also hinders egg production. Stress-reducing activities such as yoga, meditation, exercise or a warm bath can help keep stress and frustration at bay.
2. Eat Healthy.
Healthy foods improve overall health, this includes helping your eggs stay healthy and high quality, as well as improve overall fertility. Eat plenty of leafy greens, whole grains, lean meats, nuts, fresh vegetables, and fruits. Stay away from trans fats, refined carbs, processed foods or meats, and excessive salt and sugar.
3. Invest in Supplements.
No need to break the bank on vitamins, but there are three low-cost options that can help with egg health.
4. Freeze Your Eggs.
If you are planning on delaying motherhood, the best way to protect your fertility future is to stop your biological clock and freeze your eggs. With time, a woman’s natural fertility declines, but frozen eggs remain the same biological age as when they are cryopreserved, boosting your chances of future success.
5. Stay Away from Cigarettes.
Smoking permanently speeds up egg loss in the ovaries. The chemicals in cigarettes mutate the DNA in a woman’s egg cells, making some of the eggs unsuitable for conception. Women are born with all the eggs they will ever have, and the number of eggs reduces with age, so it is best to keep eggs healthy and free of unnecessary chemicals.
Cause of poorly functioning fallopain tube
Caused by both bacteria and viruses and usually transmitted sexually, these infections commonly cause inflammation
resulting in scarring and damage. A specific example is Hydrosalpnix, a condition in which the fallopian tube is occluded at
both ends and fluid collects in the tube.
(2) Abdominal Diseases
The most common of these are appendicitis and colitis, causing inflammation of the abdominal cavity which can affect the
fallopian tubes and lead to scarring and blockage.
(3) Previous Surgeries
This is an important cause of tubal disease and damage. Pelvic or abdominal surgery can result in adhesions that alter the
tubes in such a way that eggs cannot travel through them.
(4) Ectopic Pregnancy
This is a pregnancy that occurs in the tube itself and, even if carefully and successfully overcome, may cause tubal damage
and is a potentially life-threatening condition.
(5) Congenital Defects
In rare cases, women may be born with tubal abnormalities, usually associated with uterus irregularities.
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