On 31 January, following the developments of COVID-19 pandemic in mainland China and other countries worldwide, the federal government of Nigeria set up a Coronavirus Preparedness Group to mitigate the impact of the virus if it eventually spreads to the country. On the same day, the World Health Organization listed Nigeria among other 13 African countries identified as high-risk for the spread of the virus.
On 26 February, a Chinese citizen presented himself to the Lagos State government on suspicion of being infected with coronavirus. He was admitted at Reddington Hospital and was released the following day after testing negative.
On 28 February 2020 , Nigeria confirmed it's first case in Lagos State, an Italian citizen who works in Nigeria had returned on 25 February from Milan, Italy through the Murtala Muhammed International Airport , fell ill on 26 February and was transferred to Lagos State biosecurity facilities for isolation and testing.
On 9 March, the second case was confirmed, a Nigerian citizen in Ewekoro , Ogun State who had contact with the Italian citizen. On 13 March, Nigeria confirmed that the second case no longer had the virus in his system and thus tested negative.
Nigeria Centre for Disease Control also announced same day that they had already set up coronavirus group and was ready to activate its incident system if any case emerged in Nigeria.
The Federal government of Nigeria assured citizens of the country of its readiness to strengthen surveillance at five international airports in the country to prevent the spread of coronavirus. The government announced the airports as Enugu , Lagos , Rivers , Kano and the FCT.
By 31 March, 139 cases and 2 deaths had been confirmed. The suspected cases that Nigeria were tracing, rose to 6,000
The milestones of 100,000 confirmed cases was reached on 10 January 2021. Nigeria's first case of the B.1.1.7 variant was confirmed on 25 January. There were 43,732 new cases in January, raising the total number of confirmed cases to 131,242. The death toll rose to 1,586. The number of recovered patients increased to 104,989, leaving 26,667 active cases at the end of the month.
There were 24,415 new cases in February, taking the total number of confirmed cases to 155,657. The death toll rose to 1,907. The number of recovered patients increased to 133,768, leaving 19,982 active cases at the end of the month.
On 2 March 2021, the first shipment of Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine from the COVAX initiative arrived at the Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport in Nigeria.
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