Generally speaking when the word ''diabetes'' is mention people tend to focus more about the vascular effect and neglecting some other organs of the body which it can affect. There are various other organs which the high glucose level in the blood (hyperglycemia) can damage or hinder its optimum effect, which are;
- when it damages the Eye it is cause Diabetic Retinopathy.
- when it affect the Nerves it is called Neuropathy.
- when it affect the Kidney is called Nephropathy.
- when it affect the Feet is called Diabetic foot. etc.
Without wasting so much of our time Diabetes is a condition characterized by increase in blood sugar beyond the average milligram for every individual, when this happen it apparently causes more harms to various other organs relying on blood supplies for their optimum functions or regulation.
Image of the eye showing typical areas to be discussed.
Diabetic Retinopathy occurs when the excess blood sugar causes stenosis in blood vessels in the retinal in the internal chambers thereby causing difficulty seeing. Retinal is the part of the eye located in the inner part of the eye responsible for the capturing, forming and assisting in transmission of object to the optic nerves where it is being taken to the brain for interpretation.
Types of Diabetic Retinopathy
Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy
It is the earliest type of diabetic retinopathy in which the tiny blood vessels in the retinal is ruptured or leaks which leads to Macular Oedema (swelling of the macular a small area of the retina that allows the eyes to see fine details clearly, the swelling is as a result of the leaking or rupture vessels) or Macular Ischemia (this means the macular dies off due to insufficient supplies of blood reach in nutrient which will make the vision blurry and eventual vision loss).
Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy
This occur when there is abnormal growth on the surface of the retinal which result in reducing or cutting blood supplies to the retinal. this may cause more severe vision than Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy because it can affect both central and peripheral vision. This is how it affect the vision;
vitreous Hemorrhage: the rupture new vessel leak bloods into the clear vitreous humor which the posterior part of the and thereby makes the vision blur but vision may return to normal as soon as the blood is clear off the vitreous. although it may take many months before the blood is reabsorbed.
Traction Retinal Detachment: The new growth can cause scar tissues as a result of wrinkling and shrinking which may eventually pull the retinal from it original position. the can cause total blindness if not properly managed.
Neovascular Glaucoma: the new growth may eventually grow new vessels that will block the normal flow thereby increasing intra ocular pressure (IOP) and causing more nerves damages in the eye.
How is Diabetic Retinopathy detected?
When someone is diabetic and is having blurry vision other than cataract, the Ophthalmologist uses the Ophthalmoscope to visualize the inner aspect of the eye.
How is Diabetic Retinopathy treated?
A. Laser Surgery: this the use of light generated from machine to reattached the detached retinal, destroy new grow in the macular and channel blocked blood vessels in other to reduce the intra ocular pressure.
B. Vitrectomy: It is a microsurgical procedure used in withdrawal and replacing the fluid in the posterior segment of the eye if the blood in it is not clearing off over a long time.
Prevention Diabetic Retinopathy
A. Frequent Eye check
B. Proper Management of Diabetes.
C. Proper Management of hypertension.
Please note that it is necessary but compulsory to create time for a routine eye check up...
Thanks for your time.
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