The fontanelle's purpose is to allow the baby's head to form after delivery and to help the brain's development during childhood. Due to the influx of minerals, the sutures fuse over time, and the soft spot fades away.
Photo Credit: Momjunction
However, changes in texture or appearance can occur and it indicates major medical problems. Parents should be on the lookout for soft areas on their baby's head that are bent outward and feel quite solid. This is known as a bulging fontanel and it is an indication of brain edema or fluid buildup.
Knowing what causes a bulging fontanelle help assist in preventing the illness.
Here are the causes of a bulging fontanelle
Photo Credit: Medical news today
1 Encephalitis is a viral or bacterial illness that causes inflammation in the brain.
2 Excess cerebral fluid which can be present from birth or develop as a result of injury or infection.
Photo Credit: wikiHow
3 Meningitis, a viral or bacterial illness that causes inflammation of the brain and spinal cord tissue.
Photo Credit: Medical news today
Certain illnesses, such as rubella, can be transmitted from a pregnant woman to her unborn child, resulting in brain swelling.
5 Premature babies, as well as those who receive injuries or are deprived of oxygen after birth, are more likely to experience brain bleeding.
Several variables can cause a soft area to appear to be bulging when it isn't, such as lying down, vomiting, or screaming. However, to see if your baby has a bulging fontanel, first, try to quiet them down, then position them so that their head is upright. If you succeed in doing so but the soft spot still appears to be swelling, take your child to the doctor at once.
Here are likely treatment approach your doctor may take
A lumbar puncture will be done and this is a procedure in which a needle is inserted into the area around the spine to get a sample of cerebrospinal fluid. While the operation is generally safe, it is the most accurate technique to evaluate whether a bulging fontanel is caused by an infection.
Photo Credit: Healthline
1 Antibiotic or antivirals are used to treat brain infections, depending on the causative agents.
2 In hydrocephalus, surgical techniques to build shunts to drain excess fluid may be undertaken.
3 If tumors are present, they are surgically removed.
4 Thyroid hormone replacement therapy may be beneficial if the baby has thyroid problems.
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