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Spleen Complications Or Splenic Abscess In Sickle Cell Disease

Splenic abscess in sickle cell disease patients is one of the spleen dysfunction found in this set of patients. It is a result of infective endocarditis which occurs in about five percent of patients, thus splenic abscess is an infectious disease that moves from a contagious site to the spleen in the body. 

Almost all splenic abscesses are developed as a result of bacteremia or fungemia. Endocarditis is the major and most classic cause of splenic abscess in sickle cell disease patients. Other underlying conditions that result in splenic abscess include urinary tract infection, surgical wound infections, typhoid fever, trauma (a less frequent predisposing factor), felty syndrome, amyloidosis, and gastrointestinal infections. 

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Photo Credit: Anesthesia Key

Tumors, splenic infarction, and hematoma can mimic splenic abscess clinically when they occur in sickle cell disease patients. Laboratory diagnosis that proves positive or splenic abscess are; leukocytosis which is present in the majority of patients, blood cultures, other fluid cultures, polymerase chain reaction assays, abscess fluid cultured at the surgery, or percutaneously. 


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Photo Credit: Nature

No serum laboratory test can detect splenic abscess. Imaging procedures that detect splenic abscess in patients; ultrasonography (high resonance ultrasound can detect microabscesses), computed tomography scan (CT scan), most times magnetic resonance imaging MRI is used but it is not reliable, radionuclide scans (such as the Tc99 liver spleen scans). 

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Photo Credit: Nature

Organisms that cause splenic abscess are Streptococci, Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Aerobic gram-negative rods, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Salmonellae, Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., and Proteus spp. Symptoms of splenic abscess are fever, pain in the upper quadrant which could sometimes be pleuritic in nature, and sometimes pain in the left shoulder, early satiety. 

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Photo Credit: ResearchGate

High-dose broad spectrum antibiotics are used in the treatment of splenic abscesses, and the administration of these antibiotics depends on the causative organism. The gold or approved standard surgical procedure for treating a splenic abscess is splenectomy (removal of the spleen)

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Photo Credit: ResearchGate

Content created and supplied by: Dr-Kikiope (via Opera News )

Splenic Abscess

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