If you or your non-Taiwanese ancestors managed to retain Republic of China citizenship without ever actually migrating to Taiwan. Baseball player Sadaharu Oh is often called “Taiwanese” but I don’t think it makes any sense when he was born in Japan to a Japanese mother and a Chinese father who immigrated from Zhejiang. Oh inherited his father’s Republic of China citizenship because that was the Chinese sovereign state on the mainland at the time. Taiwan, on the other hand, was still under Japanese occupation so it wasn’t part of the Republic of China yet. Some older Chinese-Americans I have met also have Republic of China citizenship but they never once stepped foot in Taiwan their entire lives. If you are from the Republic of China’s Fujian province instead of Taiwan province. There is more to the modern Republic of China than just Taiwan and “Taiwan” is not a country, the Republic of China is the country. My maternal ancestry is from Kinmen and people there don’t identify as Taiwanese nor are the legally classified as such.
If you are born in Taiwan but don’t identify as “Taiwanese” in terms of national identity. I know some people who think this but they’re mostly the older generation or ardent Chinese nationalists. A few indigenous peoples who reject the label of “Taiwanese”, preferring to be labelled with their Austronesian ethnic group. Some eschew the word “Taiwan” for “Formosa” due to their resentment of Chinese colonization, and out of desire for greater autonomy.
There is a Fujian Province in the Republic of China: It includes the islands of Kinmen and Matsu. You might hear some people claim that they are Taiwanese. You might even hear maps label them as Kinmen, Taiwan. This is false. The people of Kinmen have been living there long before there were any settlements in Taiwan. As for Matsu, the people there are Fuzhouese, who have no connection with the people of Taiwan whatsoever (linguistically, politically, and culturally). You can see this in the election results as well. The Fujianese have never voted for a pro-Taiwan political party in all of their existence.
In Kinmen, one can hang both the PRC and ROC flags side by side without much controversies. Try doing this on Taiwan or Penghu Islands, and you might get assaulted.
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