Before the British colonial masters came to Nigeria, there were several Kingdoms and empires that were already civilizing at their own pace of time. For example, in the Northern part of Nigeria, there were Kingdoms which were ruled by Islam. There was the Sokoto caliphate which was established in 1804 by Usman Danfodio, there was also the Kanem Borno empire. In the west, there was the Oyo empire which had lasted for centuries until it was later destroyed during the Jihad war.
In the east, there was also the Arochukwu Confederacy that was ruled by the Igbos, they controlled most of the resources in the hinterland, there was also the Benin empire, the Nri Kingdom, there was also the Igala Kingdom and many others but when the British colonial masters came, they began conquering kingdoms one after another, they conquered and destroyed the Arochukwu Confederacy between the year 1901 to 1902. They conquered the Benin empire in the year 1897 and gained control over the Sokoto caliphate and many other kingdoms.
After the British government had successfully conquered all the strong parts of Nigeria, in 1900, the declared the Southern and Northern protectorates as their colony and they began their administration there, they later amalgamated the Northern and Southern region together in the year 1914.
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