Education: Important Things You Need To Know About The Chromosome
Chromosomes are thread like structures that appear inside the nucleus at the time of cell division. They were first observed by the German embryologist Walther Fleming in 1882, when he was examining the rapidly dividing cells of salamander larvae. Since their discovery, chromosomes have been found in the cells of all eukaryotes.
Number of chromosomes
Their number however varies from species to species. Penicillium, a fungus, has only one pair of chromosomes, while some ferns have more than 500 pairs. A mosquito has 6, honeybee 32, corn 20, sugarcane 80, frog 26 and a mouse has 40 chromosomes. Human cells have 46 chromosomes, consisting of 23 pairs.
Each of human 46 chromosomes contains hundreds or thousands of genes that play important roles in determining how a person’s body develops and functions.
The possession of all these chromosomes is therefore, essential for survival.
Missing of a part or whole of chromosome leads to serious consequences, usually death occurs
Typically, a chromosome is made of chromatids, centromere, (primary constriction), and a secondary constriction.
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