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The Concept of IQ (Intelligence Quotient)

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The term 'IQ' was coined in 1912 by psychologist William Stern with the German term Intelligence quotient. At that time, IQ was represented as a ratio of mental age to chronological age x 100. So, if an individual of 10 years of age had a mental age of 10, their IQ would be 100.

However, according to Psychologists, IQ is a standard measure of an individual's intelligence level based on psychological tests.

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IQ Classification

IQ classification is the practice used by IQ test publishers for designating IQ score ranges into various categories with labels such as "superior" or "average” IQ classification was preceded historically by attempts to classify human beings by general ability based on other forms of behavioral observation which are still of great importance for validating classifications based on IQ tests

Criticism and views Source: istock photo

Relationship of IQ to intelligence

IQ is the most thoroughly researched means of measuring intelligence and also the most widely used in practical settings. However, while IQ strives to measure some concepts of intelligence, it may fail to serve as an accurate measure of broader definitions of intelligence. IQ tests examine some areas of intelligence while neglecting others such as creativity and social intelligence.

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Criticism of IQ

Critics such as Keith Stanovich do not dispute the reliability of IQ test scores or their capacity to predict some kinds of achievement, but insist that basing a concept of intelligence on IQ test scores alone neglects other important aspects of mental ability.

Also, some scientists argue the suitability of IQ completely. In The Mismeasure of Man (1996), Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould criticized IQ tests and argued that they were used for scientific racism. He argued that 'Q' was a mathematical artifact and criticized:

...the abstraction of intelligence as a single entity, its location within the brain, its quantification as one number for each individual, and the use of these numbers to rank people in a single series of worthiness, invariably to find that oppressed and disadvantaged groups—races, classes, or sexes—are innately inferior and deserve their status.

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While IQ scores can reveal information about an individual's abilities in certain domains, it is also important to remember that other factors, including such things as adaptive skills, emotional intelligence, and task performance, are also important indicators of an individual's capabilities.

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