Edward I (reigned 1272-1307) was the son of Henry III.
His lifelong ambition was to bring Wales and Scotland under the same sovereign as England. He invaded Wales and forced Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, to give up much of his territory under the Treaty of Conway(1277). The Welsh were unhappy, and soon Llewellyn and his brothers, David, took up arms against Edward. Llewellyn was killed in a skirmish, and David was put to death.
In 1301, Edward revived the title of Prince of Wales, and conferred it on his new born son.
The title has since been held by the British Sovereign's eldest son.
Edward did not succeed in conquering Scotland, but his repeated attacks earned him the title of "Hammer of the Scots." The death of the Scottish king m, Alexander III, in 1286, followed by that of his little grand daughter, Margaret, the maid of Norway, left the Scots without a ruler, though there were many claimants to the throne.
Edward was asked to decide between claimants, and choose John Baliol. The Scots, fearing English interference, rose in rebellion but we're defeated by Edward at Dunbar, and the Scottish crown and coronation Stone were taken to London (1296). Another rebellion under William Wallace followed, and the English were defeated at Stirling bridge(1297).
Edward again led an army into Scotland, defeating Wallace at Falkirk (1298).
The Scottish patriot was not captured until 1305, when he was put to death as a traitor. But another leader took his place--- Robert Bruce, descendant of a Scottish king. For the last time the old king Edward I marched north, but died at Burgh-on-Sands, near Carlisle.
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