Every time they hit it.There is a lot of ground covered by “bulletproof vest”, but the basic technology you’re talking about are aramid fibres (e.g: Kevlar). These are woven into thick mats and they stop bullets because they are extremely hard to tear and the bullet uses up all its energy trying to tear through layer after layer of woven aramid.
So the bullet will always tear a small hole: that’s literally how the vest stops the bullet. On top of this some vests also have hard armour plates (often called “trauma plates”). These are inserted into pockets in the armour in places where you don’t normally bend much and/or where there are vital organs that need extra protection.
These work differently: they stop the bullet by simply being incredibly hard. They can be made of metal, ceramics or a mix of materials. Compared to these guys bullets are relatively soft. When a bullet reaches a plate it’ll deform and might ricochet, shatter or simply be stopped. You’ll have one or more holes in the plate carrier but the plate itself should be pretty intact. They’re not infinitely resuable though, and should be replaced if they’ve taken hits.
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