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Magic Behind making calls! Facts that will amaze you.

INTRODUCTION

In our everyday activities we cannot go through a single day without communicating via your mobile phones. We all make and receive call without knowing the processes behind that.


The processes are vast but in a nutshell, you'll at least be aware of it.


Calls cannot exist without the following item:


1. Transmission medium either free space(air) or communication cables.


2. The base station.


3. Antenna


3. Public Switch Telephone Network (PSTN)


4. Mobile Switch Center (MSC)


5. Telecom subscriber.


6. Mobile Phone.


2. TERMS DEFINITIONS.


1. TRANSMISSION MEDIUM

It's a channel that aids the passage of signal, voice or data.


2. The base STATION

In wireless communications, it's a transceiver connecting variety of other devices to at least one another and/or to a wider area. In mobile telephony, it provides the connection between mobile phones, and therefore, the wider telephone network.


A base station may be a fixed point of communication for customer cellular phones on a carrier network. The base station is connected to an antenna (or multiple antennae) that receives and transmits the signals within the cellular network to customer phones and cellular devices.


3. ANTENNA

It's a reciprocal between the transmission and receiving point. It's a device made of conductive metal (metal that conducts electricity) that sends and/or receives electromagnetic radio waves. Electromagnetic radio waves are waves of light within a specific frequency (3 Kilohertz to 300 gigahertz) that are invisible to the human eye, and are utilized for long distance communication.

4. PUBLIC SWITCH TELEPHONE NETWORK (PSTN)

is the aggregate of the world's circuit-switched telephone networks that are operated by national, regional, or local telephony operators, providing infrastructure and services for public telecommunication. The PSTN consists of telephone lines, fiber optic cables, microwave transmission links, cellular networks, communications satellites, and undersea telephone cables, all interconnected by switching centers, thus allowing most telephones to communicate with each other.


The E.163 and E.164 standards provide one global address space for telephone numbers. Combination of the interconnected networks, and therefore, the single numbering plan allow telephones around the world to dial one another. Hence, Subscribers can receive service from their local telecommunications company.


5. MOBILE SWITCHING CENTER (MSC)

The Mobile Switching Center (MSC) could also be a central that makes the connection between mobile users within the network, from mobile users to the overall public switched telephone network and from mobile users to other mobile networks.


The MSC also administers handovers to neighboring base stations, keeps a record of things of mobile subscribers, is responsible for subscriber services and billing.


6. SUBSCRIBER

Is a particular person registered with a certain approved Telecom companies e.g MTN, AIRTEL, GLOBACOM etc.


7. MOBILE PHONE

A mobile also mentioned as a hand phone, telephone, or telephone could also be a little portable radio-telephone which can be used to communicate over long distances without wires.


3. MAKING CALL TO DIFFERENT NETWORK

To make call between different networks, 2 subscribers are required e.g MTN and 9MOBILE and also 2 Mobile Switch Centers (MSC)are required since the subscribers are not on the same Network. When 0803 wants to call 0809, the MTN MSC will contact the PSTN to check whether 0809 is active, if the number was recognized, PSTN will link to 9MOBILE MSC. The 9MOBILE MSC will now be searching for it's registered subscribers within the area. When 0809 was found as an active subscriber, MTN and 9MOBILE'S MSC will now connect each other to allow communication between the two subscribers from their current base stations.


4. MAKING CALL TO SAME NETWORK

In this mode of communication, only 1 MSC is required because of the subscribers are all on the same network.0803 dialed a number 0803,the call will directly go to his/her nearest base station whereby antenna will receive the transmitted signal, and radiate it to free space. The call will go directly to the MTN MSC and the MSC will contact the PSTN to search other 0803.subscriber, if the number was recognized PSTN will link MTN MSC and it will now connect the two MTN subscribers to communicate. That's why charges on same network are less compared to different network because there is less round about process.


5. WHY CALLS HANG UP / CUT OFF WHILE TRAVELING

On the diagram above you can see shape consisting A, B, C, D and E all with base stations we call it a cell. Each cell consists different network called hand off. Hand off is a communication link that connect two or more cells. We experience network breakage while traveling, this occurs when you are out of your cell range, and we call it hard hand-off. Hard hand-off is the breakage of a network at the edge of a cell.

You cannot access any network to communicate unless you enter another cell range e.g You are on E road driving when you reach it end the network will cut off unless you cross C road. This is why sometimes when we are making call while traveling, we experience some noise/distortion over our phones.


CONCLUSION

With this summarize processes behind making call I confidently believe that you are aware of the secrets protocols that occur within a nano seconds behind your day-to-day phone calls.

Content created and supplied by: J.technology (via Opera News )

Antenna Mobile Phone PSTN Public Switch Telephone Network

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